Skip to main content Skip to office menu Skip to footer
Capital IconMinnesota Legislature
Skip Navigation Links >

Last reviewed May 2024

Minnesota Issue Guide

This guide is compiled by staff at the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library on a topic of interest to state legislators. It introduces the topic and points to sources for further research. It is not intended to be exhaustive.

Medical Cannabis  Cannabinoids and Hemp  Recreational Marijuana  Books and Reports  Articles  Internet Resources

In Marijuana: A Short History, John Hudak writes that humans have used the cannabis plant for thousands of years - more than 5,000 according to some historians - and for a myriad of purposes. The genus Cannabis includes three principal species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis.  Cannabis plants contain many cannabinoids, chemical compounds that can be psychoactive or nonpsychoactive. The most well-know cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), known for its psychoactive effects, and cannabidiol (CBD). Some strains of cannabis are higher in THC than others and portions of these plants are harvested to produce the psychoactive drug commonly referred to as marijuana. Hemp is derived from cannabis plants that contain less than 0.3 percent THC. These plants are used to make hemp-based products, everything from ropes to ship sails to non-psychoactive protein-rich food products. They are also used to make edible, hemp-derived THC products.

Marijuana was largely unregulated in the United States until Congress passed The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-238), which unofficially banned marijuana by imposing strict regulations for every sale. Soon after this act passed, all states made marijuana possession illegal (e.g. Laws of Minnesota 1939, chap. 405). When the Controlled Substance Act passed the U.S. Congress in 1970 (P.L. 91-513), marijuana was classified as a Schedule I drug, the most restrictive of the five schedules, and that classification remains today. Since then, annual attempts have been made at the federal level to down-schedule marijuana or deschedule it altogether.

Since then, states have begun to approve cannabis for medical use, starting with California in 1996, and recreational use, starting with Colorado and Washington State in 2012. Minnesota established a medical cannabis program in 2014 and legalized cannabis for recreational use in 2023. Additionally, many states have decriminalized the possession of small amounts of marijuana. Minnesota's decriminalization law first passed in 1976 (Laws of Minnesota 1976, chapter 42). 

Regulations around cannabis' use and sale continue to evolve. This guide provides an overview of cannabis-related laws and regulations in Minnesota.

Note: Throughout this guide, the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana" are both used. For some perspective on the history of and usage of these two terms, see Marijuana: A Short History, pages 23-27, by John Hudak (HV5822.M3 H832 2016).

Medical Cannabis

Minnesota legalized medical cannabis in 2014 (Laws of Minnesota 2014, chap. 311 (SF2470)). The law created the Task Force on Medical Cannabis Therapeutic Research to conduct assessments to evaluate the impact of the use of medical cannabis and established the Office of Medical Cannabis to implement the law. Minnesota residents participating in the medical cannabis program are required to join a patient registry in order to obtain and use medical cannabis for treatment purposes.

The 2014 law spelled out qualifying conditions for participation in the medical cannabis program. Other qualifying conditions were established by the Medical Cannabis Intractable Pain Advisory Panel and the Medical Cannabis Review Panel. As new conditions were added to the list of qualifying medical conditions, they were posted on the Office of Medical Cannabis website.

Initially, Minnesota did not allow patients with a prescription to smoke marijuana. Instead, only the use of pills, oils, or vaporizing of a cannabis compound through a device similar to an e-cigarette was allowed. In 2021 the Legislature expanded the law to allow medical cannabis patients to smoke "dried raw cannabis" (see Laws of Minnesota 2021, chap. 30, art. 3, sec. 29 and Minn. Stat. 152.22, subd. 6). In December of that year, as part of it's annual process to review qualifying conditions and delivery methods, the Department of Health approved "infused edibles in the form of gummies and chews" as an additional delivery option for patients, effective August 1, 2022. The Department added dry herb vaporization as a delivery method for medical cannabis in 2023.

The legislation that legalized cannabis for recreational use in Minnesota in 2023 also made changes to the administration of the medical cannabis program. Oversight and administration of the program will be transferred from the Minnesota Department of Health to the Office of Cannabis Management's Division of Medical Cannabis.

Cannabinoids and Hemp

The 2018 U.S. Farm bill, enacted in December 2018, authorized hemp production and removed hemp from the Drug Enforcement Agency's list of controlled substances. According to a U.S. Department of Agriculture memorandum, states and Indian tribes must allow interstate shipment of hemp, though they retain the authority to prohibit the growth of hemp within their borders.

As hemp-derived CBD products proliferated after the passage of the 2018 farm bill, states and the federal government worked to understand the legality of the products under state and federal laws and to regulate their trade. In January 2019, the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy issued a legal analysis of the issue, and during the 2019 Special Session, laws passed related to those issues.

In December 2021, the Board of Pharmacy released a report highlighting some on-going legal considerations regarding the sale of products containing CBD or other cannabinoids in light of the Minnesota Court of Appeals decision in State v. Loveless. In March 2022, the Board of Pharmacy voted to resolve some of these legal considerations, clarifying that hemp products containing trace amounts of delta-9 THC do not violate the controlled substances act. They noted in meeting documents that "the Board’s Executive Director is working with Legislators and staff from the Departments of Agriculture and Health on legislation that would also 'fix' the potential problem created by Loveless." 

The Minnesota Legislature made changes to Minn. Stat. 151.72 in 2022 that impacted the legal sale of products containing cannabinoids derived from hemp. The new law regulating these products (see Laws of Minnesota 2022, chap. 98) allowed consumers age 21 and older to purchase products that contain THC derived from hemp beginning July 1, 2022. This law differed from other state laws that had more comprehensively legalized recreational marijuana. However, as these laws went into effect, Minnesota was considered by many a "quasi-legal market" for intoxicating cannabis products. When Minnesota legalized recreational marijuana in 2023, the law continued to allow these types of products in the marketplace. The Minnesota Department of health provides additional information about how the new law affects edible cannabinoid products in Minnesota.

Recreational Marijuana

In 2023, Minnesota legalized recreational marijuana for use by adults over 21, becoming the 23rd state to do so (Laws of Minnesota 2023, chap. 63). The Legislature held more than two dozen hearings on HF100 and SF73 in 2023. The versions of the bill that passed the House and the Senate were not identical, and a conference committee was convened to resolved the differences. The final version of the bill passed the House on May 18, 2023, the Senate on May 19, 2023, and was signed by Gov. Tim Walz on May 30, 2023. 

The new law authorizes the possession, consumption, and sale of cannabis for adults 21 and over, and establishes a regulatory framework for these products under the newly created Office of Cannabis Management. The new law also continues to make provision for the use and sale of lower-dose cannabis and hemp products, which began to proliferate in Minnesota following changes made by the Legislature in 2022. Recreational marijuana dispensaries are not expected to open until 2024 or 2025. Tribal governments in Minnesota can craft their own cannabis policies. Red Lake Nation's recreational cannabis dispensary opened on August 1, 2023.

The first bills proposing to legalize recreational marijuana in Minnesota were introduced in 2017 (e.g. HF927/SF1320) and bills were introduced every subsequent session until the measure passed in 2023. Prior to the passage of recreational marijuana, in August 2019, Governor Tim Walz announced that he had directed state agencies to be ready to implement policies related to legalized cannabis. The 2019-2020 session included a proposal to establish a cannabis task force to more closely investigate issues surrounding legalization (see HF717), but it did not pass. The House held many committee hearings on a recreational marijuana bill in 2021 (HF600), and passed their bill off the floor -- though it later died in the Senate. The Senate first heard a recreational marijuana bill in committee in 2019 (SF619), but a bill did not reach the floor until 2023.

Organizations like NCSL and NORML track cannabis-related legislation across states. Most states that have legalized recreational marijuana have done so through ballot initiative. In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first states to legalize recreational marijuana. In 2018 Vermont became the first state to legalize cannabis through the legislative process. Regulations on possession, use, sale, cultivation, and taxation vary by state.

Many states have decriminalized the possession of small amounts of marijuana. Minnesota's first decriminalization law passed in 1976 (Laws of Minnesota 1976, chapter 42). Decriminalization laws were previously specified in Minnesota Statutes 152.027 subd. 4, but the 2023 legislation reworked and expanded decriminalization statutes (see Laws of Minnesota 2023, chap. 63).

While marijuana remains a schedule I drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act, and is therefore subject to strict federal control, there have been regular attempts in Congress to change this designation over the years; for example, in December 2020, the MORE Act of 2020 passed the United States House of Representatives, but was not brought to a vote in the United States Senate. In 2024, the Drug Enforcement Agency announced it will move to deschedule marijuana. The process will involve a period of public comment before a final rule on descheduling is issued.

Books and Reports

Medical Cannabis

A Review of Medical Cannabis Studies Relating to Chemical Compositions and Dosages for Qualifying Medical Conditions. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2014-present [annual]. (RM666.C266 R47)

Early Results of Office of Medical Cannabis Surveys. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2016. (RM666.C266 E27 2016)

Medical Cannabis and Intractable Pain. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2015. (RM666.C266 M567 2015)

Medical Cannabis for Non-Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, [2016]. (RM666.C266 M568 2016)

Medical Cannabis Program Update. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2016-present [quarterly]. (RM666.C266 M435)

Minnesota's Medical Cannabis Program. Minnesota House Research Department, 2023. (KFM5774.5.M3 M56)

Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program: Patient Experiences from the First Program Year. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2017. (RM666.C266 M565 2017)

Minnesota’s Medical Cannabis Therapeutic Research Act. Minnesota House of Representatives Research Department, 2018. (RM666.C266 M56)

Petitions to Add Qualifying Medical Conditions to the Medical Cannabis Program. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2016-present [annual]. (RM666.C266 P48)

Report on Medical Cannabis Price Study. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis/BerryDunn, [2020]. (RM666.C266 B76 2020 Update)

Cannabinoids and Hemp

CBD from Industrial Hemp. Minnesota Board of Pharmacy, 2019. (RM666.C266 C33 2019)

Cortilet, Anthony. Considerations for a Framework to Regulate the Possession and Transportation of Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol Extracted from Hemp in Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2020. (RM666.C266 C66 2020)

Cortilet, Anthony. Industrial Hemp Research. Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2015. (HD9155.U62 C67 2015)

Hemp Derived Products: Frequently Asked Questions. Minnesota Board of Pharmacy, 2022.

Industrial Hemp Pilot Program Annual Report. Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2017.

Sale of Certain Cannabinoid Products Workgroup: Report to the Legislature. Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Medical Cannabis, 2020.

Statutes, Rules, and Guidance: Legislation - Substances Derived from Hemp. Minnesota Board of Pharmacy, 2021. (KFM5774.5.M3 S73 2021)

Recreational Marijuana

Alder, Jonathan. Marijuana Federalism: Uncle Sam and Mary Jane. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2020. (HV5825 .M354 2020)

Backhus, Ken. [Criminal Penalties for] Marijuana Possession. St. Paul, MN: Senate Counsel, 2021.

Backhus, Ken. [Criminal Penalties for] Marijuana Sales. St. Paul, MN: Senate Counsel, 2021.

Bookbinder, Michael, et al. Cannabis Industry State Tax Guide. United States: Fox Rothschild, 2019. (KF6624.C36 B66 2019)

Davis, Carl, et al. Taxing Cannabis. Washington DC: Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, 2019. (KF6624.C36 D38 2019)

Dills, Angela, et al. The Effect of State Marijuana Legalizations: 2021 Update. CATO Institute, 2021.

How Four States Incorporated Public Health into Cannabis Policy. Denver: National Conference of State Legislatures, 2022. (HV5822.C3 H36 2022)

Hudak, John. Marijuana: A Short History. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2016. (HV5822.M3 H832 2016)

Lee, Martin. Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana: Medical, Recreational, and Scientific. New York: Scribner, 2012. (HV5822.M3 L34 2012)

Local Impact Note Request: HF100 (Stephenson) / SF73 (Port) -- Legalize Adult-Use Cannabis. St. Paul, MN: Legislative Budget Office, 2023.

The Marijuana Policy Gap and the Path Forward. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2017.

Minnesota 2022 Cannabis Report. Waterloo, Canada: International Cannabis Policy Study - University of Waterloo, 2023.

O'Reilly, James, et al. Legal Guide to the Business of Marijuana: Cannabis, Hemp, and CBD Regulation. New York: Practising Law Institute, 2023. (Ref KF3891.M2 O74 2023)

Peterman, David Randall. Marijuana Use and Highway Safety. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2019. (HV5822.M3 P48)

Price, Tom. Legal Marijuana. CQ Researcher, 2023. 

The Schedule I Status of Marijuana. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2020.

Turcott, Bruce (ed.). Cannabis Law Deskbook, 2023-2024. Thomson Reuters, 2023.

Simms, Nicole. Collateral Costs: Racial Disparities and Injustice in Minnesota's Marijuana Laws. St Paul: Minnesota 2020, 2014. (HV5822.M3 S56 2014)


(articles in reverse chronological order)

Medical Cannabis

Faircloth, Ryan. "Minnesota's medical cannabis director steps down to take job with city of Minneapolis." Star Tribune, December 4, 2023.

Faircloth, Ryan and Brooks Johnson. "Minnesota medical marijuana company sues state, seeks to sell some of its edibles on open market." Star Tribune, September 19, 2022.

Olson, Jeremy. "Minnesota denies medical cannabis for anxiety, adds gummies." Star Tribune, December 1, 2021.

Callaghan, Peter. "Why federal regulations are likely to keep lawful gun owners away from Minnesota's Medical Cannabis Program." MinnPost, October 26, 2021.

Callaghan, Peter. "New rules for medical marijuana in Minnesota could end up quadrulpling number of patients in program." MinnPost, October 15, 2021.

Bierschbach, Briana. "Patients celebrate 'huge win' in adding cannabis flower to Minnesota's medical program: Major expansion of Medical Marijuana Program could lower patient costs." Star Tribune, June 13, 2021.

Smith, Mary Lynn. "Minnesota health officials approve [medical] cannabis use for sickle cell disease and chronic vocal or motor tic disorder." Star Tribune, December 1, 2020.

Busche, Kelly. "State lands four new [medical] cannabis dispensaries." Finance and Commerce, November 17, 2020.

Olson, Jeremy. "Minnesota OKs cannabis for chronic pain, eye condition." Star Tribune, December 2, 2019.

Hubbard, Rob. “Why do medical cannabis companies pay the highest corporate taxes in Minnesota?Faribault Daily News, May 20, 2019.

Ehlinger, Ed. “Legalized marijuana in Minnesota? For medical use, yes; for open adult use, not yet. The state's program shows the benefits of medical cannabis. But much more study is needed into impacts of general use of the drug [opinion].” Star Tribune, February 27, 2019.

Olson, Jeremy. “Alzheimer's added to Minnesota's medical marijuana list. State adding disease to list eligible for treatment with cannabis, despite some reservations.” Star Tribune, December 3, 2018.

Stassen-Berger, Rachel. “Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program to include PTSD sufferers.” St. Paul Pioneer Press, July 5, 2017.

Zamora, Karen and Jennifer Brooks. “Minnesota's medical cannabis providers have lost $11M in two years.” Star Tribune, May 15, 2017.

Feshir, Riham. “Success, concerns mark first year of Minnesota medical cannabis.” Minnesota Public Radio, July 1, 2016.

Lundy, John. “'Life-changing': Medical cannabis has brought positive results for Hibbing girl with severe epilepsy.” Duluth News Tribune, June 12, 2016.

Gogek, Ed. “Why doctors are not in favor of medical cannabis [opinion].” Star Tribune, June 7, 2015.

Brooks, Jennifer. “Minnesota approves labs to test state's medical marijuana: The goal is to ensure that the state's medical cannabis supply is safe.” Star Tribune, April 29, 2015.

Brooks, Jennifer. “1,000 Minnesota patients interested in medical marijuana: State survey offers first look at cannabis program.” Star Tribune, February 23, 2015.

Williams, Sarah T. “Minnesota’s medical cannabis law: Variations on a national theme.” MinnPost, May 21, 2014.

Cannabinoids and Hemp

Peters, Joey. "Minnesota hemp entrepreneurs worry recreational marijuana could push them out of business." Sahan Journal, October 9, 2023.

Callaghan, Peter. "Most hemp edibles, beverages still legal under Minnesota marijuana law, but with higher taxes and new testing." MinnPost, June 6, 2023.

Nelson, Tom. "Legal questions persist as THC products spread in Minnesota." Minnesota Lawyer, November 3, 2022.

Demko, Paul. "Minnesota's weird weed experiment." Politico, October 16, 2022.

Vondracek, Christopher. "Minnesota hemp farmers hit brakes as the state's industry opens up." Star Tribune, October 15, 2022.

Johnson, Brooks. "What exactly is hemp-derived THC? And how is it difference from marijuana?" Star Tribune, September 19, 2022.

Johnson, Brooks. "Study: Minnesota missing out on millions in tax revenue by not taxing THC products." Star Tribune, September 15, 2022.

Callaghan, Peter. "Was a bill to legalize THC edibles in Minnesota intentionally kept under wraps to ensure passage?" MinnPost, July 6, 2022.

Coolican, Patrick. "The Legislature stumbles into legalizing THC, for better or worse." Minnesota Reformer [commentary], July 1, 2022.

Faircloth, Ryan. "Edibles, beverages infused with cannabis ingredient THC become legal Friday in Minnesota: Industry advocates see law as an 'oddity' allowing for recreational use while stopping just short of full marijuana legalization." Star Tribune, June 20, 2022.

Brown, Laura. "The complexities of cannabis: New law clarifies some hemp rules, but broader questions remain." Minnesota Lawyer, June 8, 2022.

Johnson, Brooks. "Minnesota hemp industry applauds legal fix to CBD question: The Minnesota Board of Pharmacy on Wednesday returned legal clarity to CBD sales and possession in the state." Star Tribune, March 16, 2022.

Johnson, Brooks. "Minnesota's hemp industry in trouble, advocates push Legislature for fixes: A state Appeals Court ruling last year put Minnesota sales of CBD, delta-8 THC in question." Star Tribune, March 2, 2022.

Johnson, Brooks. "Minnesota agencies, CBD sellers, are heading to a battle next year: Consumer safety, market access at stake as businesses and regulators seek rule changes on hemp-based products." Star Tribune, December 24, 2021.

Faircloth, Ryan. "Spread thin by budding industry, Minnesota regulators call for creation of state cannabis office: It would oversee medical cannabis, CBD and, maybe, recreational pot." Star Tribune, February 29, 2020. 

Faircloth, Ryan. "New federal rules could put Minnesota's booming hemp industry in jeopardy, ag officials warn: Minnesota ag officials call the USDA's interim standards 'unworkable' for growers.Star Tribune, January 10, 2020.

Star Tribune Editorial Board. "A timely warning about the risks in using CBD: Cure-alls have been hawked through the ages. feds say beware of the latest." Star Tribune, November 27, 2019.

MacKeen, Dawn. "What are the benefits of CBD?New York Times, October 16, 2019.

Ferguson, Ellyn. "Fields of dreams: Thanks to loosened federal restrictions, farmers are growing hopeful about hemp." CQ, October 15, 2019, p. 12-19.

Lewis, Amanda Chicago. "CBD or THC? Common drug test can’t tell the difference." New York Times, October 15, 2019.

Kaul, Greta. "As CBD market booms, Minnesota regulators try to catch up." MinnPost, September 12, 2019.

Reiley, Laura. "CBD-infused food and beverages are still illegal under U.S. law. so why are they everywhere?" Washington Post, June 24, 2019.

Mead, Alice. "Legal and regulatory issues governing cannabis and cannabis-derived products in the United States." Frontiers in Plant Science, June 14, 2019.

Moini, Nina. "Minnesota to see first CBD, hemp regulations in budget bill." Minnesota Public Radio, May 30, 2019.

Crosby, Jackie. "Major U.S. retailers have high hopes for CBD sales in oils, creams, and gummies.” Star Tribune, May 18, 2019.

Gill, Lisa L. “Can you take CBD and pass a drug test? Not always, even though it’s legal; Here’s how to protect yourself,” Consumer Reports. May 2019.

Olson, Jeremy. “CBD sales take off in Minnesota, outpacing the science: Regulators haven’t kept up with retailers’ claims about hemp product.” Star Tribune, April 7, 2019.

Schubert, Keith. "Minnesota's new untested miracle drug: What CBD can do for you (maybe)." City Pages, March 19, 2019.

Recreational Marijuana

Callaghan, Peter. "Does Minnesota's constitution say home growers can sell their extra cannabis? This lawsuit thinks it does." MinnPost, May 10, 2024.

Miller, Zeke. "U.S. drug control agency will move to reclassify marijuana in a historic shift, AP sources say." Associated Press, April 30, 2024.

"Marijuana's path to legality in Minnesota: A timeline." Star Tribune, April 19, 2024.

Faircloth, Ryan. "Minnesota still without a permanent cannabis director, but work to set up industry continues." Star Tribune, November 27, 2023.

Thamer, Sarah. "Despite legalization, cannabis can still have legal impact for immigrants who aren't U.S. citizens." Minnesota Public Radio, November 27, 2023.

Johnson, Brooks and Ryan Faircloth. "Marijuana use and possession are now legal in Minnesota: Here's what to know." Star Tribune, August 1, 2023.

Olson, Melissa. "'It's about time': Celebration marks Red Lake Nation's recreational cannabis dispensary opening." Minnesota Public Radio, August 1, 2023.

Hyatt, Kim. "What you need to know about cannabis-crime expungement in Minnesota." Star Tribune, July 28, 2023.

Hernández, Amanda. "As more states legalize pot, their uneven safety rules can pose a risk." Stateline, July 7, 2023.

"ATF provides clarification related to new Minnesota marijuana law." Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives News Release, St. Paul Field Division, May 30, 2023.

DeLong, Matt, Ryan Faircloth, and Brooks Johnson. “What you need to know about Minnesota’s marijuana legalization bill.” Star Tribune, May 20, 2023. 

Callaghan, Peter. “Minnesota’s soon-to-be law allowing recreational marijuana, explained.” MinnPost, May 17, 2023. 

Walker, Tim. "Cannabis legalization conferees agree to 10% sales tax; House Floor next stop as supporters seek green votes.Session Daily, May 16, 2023. 

Machtig, Abby. “If Minnesota legalizes marijuana, when and where will I be allowed to use it?Minnesota Public Radio, May 16, 2023. 

Callaghan, Peter. “Home grow marijuana could be legal in Minnesota August 1, but can people legally obtain seeds?MinnPost, May 15, 2023. 

Callaghan, Peter. "The tough, lonely job of being a marijuana legalization opponent in Minnesota." MinnPost, April 24, 2023.

Johnson, Brooks and Ryan Faircloth. "The lessons Colorado and Michigan learned from marijuana legalization: Minnesota lawmakers considering legalizing recreational marijuana can look to these two states for answers." Star Tribune, April 20, 2023.

Walsh, Jim. "The weed watchdog: What Minnesota can expect if it legalizes recreational marijuana this year." MinnPost, March 13, 2023.

Ingraham, Christopher. "What Minnesota can learn from legalization in other states." Minnesota Reformer, January 19, 2023.

Ibrahim, Mohamed. "Minnesota groups unite to oppose marijuana legalization." Associated Press, January 24, 2022.

Callaghan, Peter. "Equity, taxes, and criminal justice: Minnesota's latest effort to legalize recreational marijuana is about more than legalizing marijuana." MinnPost, February 5, 2021.

Jackson, Zoë. "Recreational marijuana bill is back at Minnesota capitol: DFL lawmakers will reintroduce the proposal, which faces long odds." Star Tribune, February 1, 2021.

Mumford, James. "Cannabis as a cultural question: How are we ethically to evaluate the practice of getting stoned?" The Hedgehog Review, Summer 2020.

Van Berkel, Jessie. "Democrats shaping plan to legalize recreational marijuana." Star Tribune, November 19, 2019.

Coolican, J. Patrick. "Vaping epidemic complicates marijuana legalization in Minnesota: Supporters say rigorously regulated market would actually make both safer." Star Tribune, October 31, 2019.

Pugmire, Tim. "New political parties try to organize around support for legal marijuana." Minnesota Public Radio, September 25, 2019.

Jaeger, Kyle. "Minnesota voters tell House and Senate they want marijuana legalized in separate polls." Marijuana Moment, September 4, 2019.

Schultz, David. "Why the Minnesota DFL is pushing marijuana legalization." MinnPost, September 4, 2019.

Van Berkel, Jessie. "Minnesota Democrats make push on recreational marijuana, Senate GOP pumps the brakes." Star Tribune, August 30, 2019.

Pugmire, Tim. "Walz wants state to be ready to roll on legal marijuana." Minnesota Public Radio, August 26, 2019.

Callaghan, Peter. "How much would recreational marijuana be worth to Minnesota?" MinnPost, July 10, 2019.

"High but not hired: Companies preparing for legal marijuana." KSTP, May 20, 2019.

Walker, Tim. "Cannabis bills are a case study on amending state constitution." Session Daily, May 8, 2019.

Coolican, J. Patrick. "Minnesota Senate rejects legalizing recreational marijuana." Star Tribune, March 12, 2019.

Hargarten, Jeff and Matt DeLong. "The state of marijuana in Minnesota, according to data." Star Tribune, March 11, 2019.

Callaghan, Peter. "Is the legalization of recreational marijuana in Minnesota inevitable?" Minnesota Business, January 31, 2019.

Collins, Jon. "Legalizing marijuana: Can Minnesota learn from other states?" Minnesota Public Radio, January 29, 2019.

Coolican, J. Patrick. "Legislators begin pushing marijuana legalization measures." Star Tribune, January 21, 2019.

Schultz, David. "The case for decriminalizing marijuana in Minnesota — And what it means to do so." MinnPost, December 14, 2018.

Haffajee, Rebecca, et al. "Behind schedule: Reconciling federal and state marijuana policy." The New England Journal of Medicine, August 9, 2018. [includes timeline chronicling marijuana-related legislative, judicial, and executive action, 1970-present]

Gallagher, Thomas. “Minnesota’s incomplete marijuana decriminalization–Resinous form exception.” Minneapolis Criminal Law Blog, January 26, 2015.

Internet Resources


"Cannabis (Hemp)" -- Minnesota Statutes Topical Index

Marijuana Overview -- National Conference of State Legislatures

"Medical Marijuana" -- Minnesota Statutes Topical Index

Office of Cannabis Management 

State Cannabis Policy Enactment Database -- National Conference of State Legislatures

State Industrial Hemp Statutes -- National Conference of State Legislatures

Medical Cannabis

Medical Cannabis Manufacturers/Laboratories -- Minnesota Department of Health

Minnesota Medical Cannabis Dashboard -- Minnesota Department of Health

Office of Medical Cannabis -- Minnesota Department of Health

Cannabinoids and Hemp

Cities and Regulation of Edible Cannabinoid Products -- League of Minnesota Cities

FAQS Regarding Minnesota's Industrial Hemp Pilot Program -- Minnesota Department of Agriculture

FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD) -- U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Legal Opinion on Authorities for Hemp Production -- U.S. Department of Agriculture

Recreational Marijuana

State Laws -- National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML)

Issue Guides

Agriculture and Natural Resources

Children, Youth, and Families










State Government Budget and Programs